Subverting traditional technology, solid-state batteries bec

 news     |      2021-12-03 15:48

A few days ago, Toyota and the Renault/Nissan/Mitsubishi alliance respectively stated that they aim to launch electric vehicles using solid-state batteries between 2022 and 2025. At the end of last year, Ganfeng Lithium also announced that it would build the first-generation solid-state lithium-ion battery research and development pilot production line.

The solid-state battery that takes into account both high energy density and high safety is not only an ultimate goal of battery technology, but also has a tendency to come on a global scale.

A solid-state battery refers to an energy storage device in which no liquid is contained in the battery structure, and all materials are in a solid state. It is composed of a "positive electrode material + a negative electrode material" and a solid electrolyte. Since solid-state lithium-ion batteries have the advantages of good safety performance, high energy density and long cycle life, they are ideal power lithium batteries for electric vehicles.

Regarding the 150-year-old lead-acid battery, the lithium-ion battery using organic electrolyte that entered the industrialization in 1991 is still the most advanced battery on the market.

With the rapid advancement of modern materials science and manufacturing technology, the battery technology of the "post-lead and post-lithium" era has quietly come. In the near future, solid-state batteries will enter our society at a solid pace and change our lives.

Solid-state batteries have very significant advantages. Because solid-state electrolytes replace the potentially explosive organic electrolytes in traditional lithium-ion batteries, this solves the dilemma of high energy density and high safety, which will eliminate the "life anxiety of electric vehicle users" "It is even expected to realize fast charging.

So far, through the continuous efforts of scientists, solid-state battery technology should be said to have no insurmountable technical bottlenecks, but there are still technical problems to be solved. "The core technology of solid-state batteries is solid electrolyte material technology that achieves high ionic conductivity and advanced manufacturing technology that achieves low-impedance solid-solid interface." Che Yong further explained. In terms of solid electrolyte materials, Professor Katsuji Kanno of Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan, invented a sulfide solid electrolyte with an ion conductivity of >10-2S/cm at room temperature (surpassing traditional organic electrolytes) in 2011.

This technology has become the technological foundation of Toyota Motor, a leading company in the industrialization of solid-state batteries. Compared with sulfide solid electrolytes, oxide solid electrolytes have advantages in terms of high safety and ease of production. However, the improvement of ion conductivity at room temperature is still a problem of the century.