Small improvement and big improvement: Analysis of the techn

 news     |      2021-12-03 15:47

Gel batteries are also a type of lead-acid batteries. The improvement of ordinary lead-acid batteries with liquid electrolytes replaces sulfuric acid electrolyte with colloidal electrolyte, thereby improving safety, power storage, discharge performance and service life. At present, colloidal batteries are widely used in power generation, communications, automobiles, emergency lighting and other fields. Why is it so popular? Let's analyze the technical principles of colloidal batteries and uncover the veil of its popularity.

Recap history

Since the advent of lead-acid batteries, they have been widely used by mankind in various fields. After the ordinary lead-acid battery is used for a period of time, the decrease of the electrolyte moisture causes the sulfuric acid concentration to change, and the subsequent water addition is cumbersome; on the other hand, the acid mist precipitates during the charging process, which causes certain harm to the environment and equipment, in order to lock the electrolyte firmly Live, lead-acid batteries with colloidal electrolyte came into being.

In the beginning, the gel battery used water glass to make the electrolyte, which was directly added to the dry battery, which effectively "fixed" the electrolyte and reduced the precipitation of acid mist, but the battery capacity was about 20% lower, so it did not develop. It was not until the 1980s that my country gradually introduced the gel batteries from Germany's Sunshine Company that brought gel batteries to widespread attention.

Gel battery meaning

Generally speaking, lead-acid batteries with colloidal electrolyte are usually called colloidal batteries. The simplest method is to add a gelling agent to sulfuric acid to make the sulfuric acid electrolyte become colloidal.

The difference between gel batteries and ordinary lead-acid batteries is from the initial understanding of electrolyte gelation to the electrochemical characteristics of the electrolyte basic structure, as well as the application and promotion of grids and active materials. For example, non-condensable solid water colloids belong to colloidal batteries from the perspective of electrochemical classification structure and characteristics; another example is the adhesion of polymer materials in grids, commonly known as ceramic grids, which can also be regarded as the application characteristics of colloidal batteries.

Working principle of colloidal battery

The basic working principle of the colloidal battery is the same as that of the ordinary lead-acid battery, but the silicon gel in the battery is a three-dimensional porous network structure composed of SiQ particles as the skeleton, which encloses the electrolyte inside. After turning into a gel, the skeleton shrinks further, causing cracks in the gel to penetrate between the positive and negative plates, supplying a channel for the oxygen precipitated from the positive electrode to reach the negative electrode. It is not difficult to see that the sealing working principle of the colloidal battery and the AGM battery is the same, the difference lies in the way the electrolyte is "fixed" and the way the oxygen is supplied to the negative channel is different.

Gel battery structure diagram

Gel battery characteristics

Ⅰ. High quality and long life

The colloidal electrolyte can form a solid protective layer around the electrode plates, prevent the electrode plates from being damaged due to vibration or collision, prevent the electrode plates from being corroded, and at the same time reduce the bending of the electrode plates and the short circuit between the electrode plates when the battery is used under heavy load. The service life is twice that of ordinary lead-acid batteries.

Ⅱ. Safety and environmental protection

The gel battery electrolyte is solid, and the sealing is not easy to leak; during use, there is no acid mist precipitation, no electrolyte leakage, and no pollution to the environment. Gel batteries have strong power storage capacity. Common solar street lights usually use gel batteries to store electricity.

Ⅲ. Strong deep discharge cycle

After deep discharge, the gel battery can be recharged at 100% capacity under the condition of timely recharge, which can meet the requirements of high frequency and deep discharge.

Ⅳ. Strong temperature adaptability

Because the sulfuric acid electrolyte exists in the gel, its internal resistance is slightly larger, but the internal resistance of the gel electrolyte does not change much at low temperatures, so its low-temperature start-up performance is good, and it can be used in the temperature range of -40°C to 65°C.

Ⅴ. Less self-discharge, long storage time

The colloidal electrolyte can hinder the diffusion of water generated during the reduction of the cathode and inhibit the spontaneous reduction of PbO, with less self-discharge; good resistance to plate sulfation and reduction of grid corrosion. It can be stored at 20°C for 2 years without charging. put into service.